Name of the department: Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology
Subject: Anatomy, histology and embryology
Year, semester: 1st year, 2nd semester
Number of lessons:
Lecture: Progenesis, Fertilization. Cleavage. Implantation
Bilaminar germ disc. Differentiation of the ectoderm
Differentiation of the mesoderm and entoderm. Stages of development:
embryonic and fetal periods.
Fetal membranes. Placenta. Twins.
Lecture: Epithelial tissues
Connective tissues. Adipose tissue
Cardiac and smooth muscles
Histology of blood vessels
Bone marrow and blood formation
Histology of the lymphatic organs
Cellular and molecular bases of the immunity
Practicum: Discussion of general embryology
Lecture: Heart I
Circulatory system. The vascular system of the embryo
Practicum: Discussion of general histology
Lecture: SELF CONTROL
The nasal cavity. The pharynx and the larynx. The mediastinum
The trachea, lungs and pleura
The histology of the respiratory system
Practicum: The anatomy of the heart
Lecture: The oral cavitiy, salivary glands, teeth
The oesophagus. The stomach. Small and large intestines
The pancreas. The liver
Practicum: The anatomy of the respiratory system
Lecture: The urinary system
Male genital organs
Female genital organs. The menstrual cycle.
The perineum. The mammary gland
Practicum: The anatomy of alimentary system
Lecture: The development of the nervous system – neurohistogenesis
The histology of the nervous system
Axonal transport. Degeneration and regeneration in the nervous system
The chemical synapses.
Practicum: The anatomy the urogenital apparatus
Lecture: Parts of the nervous system. The ventricles.
The meninges. Blood supply of the brain. The cerebrospinal fluid.
The structure and nerves of the spinal cord
Practicum: SELF CONTROL
Lecture: The structure of the brainstem. The nuclei of cranial nerves.
Practicum: Gross anatomy of the brain I.
Lecture: General principles of the somatosensory system. The skin.
Somatovisceral sensory functions.
The somatomotor system.
Roles of the spinal cord in the coordination of movements. The motor unit.
Practicum: Gross anatomy of the brain II.
Lecture: The parts of the motor system
The pyramidal pathways. Roles of cerebellum in the coordination of movements.
The autonomic nervous system.
The limbic system
Practicum: Gross anatomy of the brain III.
Lecture: The monoaminergic system
Neuroendocrine regulation. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system.
The endocrine glands
The taste and olfactory systems
Seminar: Gross anatomy of the brain IV.
Lecture: The eye
The visual system
The auditory system.
The vestibular system
Practicum: The sensory and motor functions of the nervous system
Seminar: SELF CONTROL
K.L. Moore and A.F. Dalley: Clinically Oriented Anatomy
6th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN 978-1-60547-652-0
Sobotta: Atlas of Human Anatomy 1-2
14th ed., Urban& Schwarzenberg, Munich, ISBN: 978-0-443-10349-0
M.H. Ross, L.J. Romrell, G.I. Kaye: Histology. A text and Atlas
5th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN 0-7817-5056-3
T.W. Sadler: Langman’s Medical Embryology
11th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wikins, ISBN 978-0-7817-9069-7
Anatomy, histology and embryology
1st year, 2nd semester
Concerning attendance, the rules written in the Regulations Governing Admission, Education and Examinations of the University are valid. The presence in practices, seminars and lectures will be recorded. The head of the department may refuse to sign the Lecture Book if a student is absent from more than two practices in one semester even if he/she has an acceptable reason.
Rules of examinations
Three midterm examinations will be held during the semester on the 5th ,9th and 15th weeks. The first exam will be written, the second and the third will be oral. The exams cover the topics of lectures, seminars and practices of the semester. The midterm exams will be evaluated with scores from 1 to 10.
Five grade evaluation of the overall academic performance of the student at the end of the semester:
At the end of the semester the overall academic performance (OAP) of the students will be evaluated with a five grade mark (OAP mark) on the basis of the following rules:
The performance of the students on the midterm examinations will be evaluated separately on each self control. To obtain a pass or better OAP mark the student has to collect at least 60% of the total score on all self controls. If the student does not reach the 60% limit from all parts the OAP mark is fail (1). If the midterm performance of the student is at least 60% from all parts, the scores of the three parts will be added and the OAP mark will be calculated on the basis of the following
Scores collected Mark
on the midterm exams
18-20 2 (pass)
21-23 3 (satisfactory)
24-26 4 (good)
27-30 5 (excellent)
Those students who have got a fail (1) mark have to sit for the end-semester exam, but the student will be examined only from those parts from which he/she did not reach the 6 point limit on the midterm examinations. The first exam is an “A” chance exam.
The end-semester exam is an oral exam that covers the topics of lectures, seminars and practices of the semester and consists of the following topics:
1. General embryology and histology
2. The visceral organs
3. Nervous system, sensory organs, endocrine system
If the student, on the basis of his/her performance on the midterm examinations, earn an exemption (collecting at leas 6 points) from one or two parts of the end-semester exam, the results of the midterm examinations will be converted into partial end-semester marks in the following way:
Scores collected Mark
on the midterm exams
6 2 (pass)
7 3 (satisfactory)
8 4 (good)
9-10 5 (excellent)
Registration and postponement: Through the NEPTUN system.