Name of the department: Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology
Subject: Pharmaceutical Anatomy
Year, semester: PHARM 1st year, 2nd semester
Number of lessons:
Lecture: Covering and lining epithelia
Practicum and seminar: Epithelial tissues
Demonstration: 1. Endothel (small intestine, HE)
2. Columnar epithelium (small intestine, brush border,HE)
Demonstration: 3. Pseudostratified epithelium with cilia (trachea, HE)
4. Stratified squamos non-keratinizing epithelium (oesophagus, HE)
5. Stratified squamos keratinizing epithelium (fingertip, HE)
6. Sebaceous, sweat and apocrine glands (axillary skin, HE)
Demonstration: 7. Mucous and serous glands(submandibular gland, HE)
Lecture: Adipose tissue. Cartilage
Bone. Bone formation.
Practicum and seminar: Connective tissue.
Demonstration: 1. Mesenchyme (umbilical cord, HE)
2. Fibroblasts (healing wound, HE)
3. Mast cell (healing wound, toluidine blue)
4. Macrophages (skin, trypane blue-nuclear fast red)
5. Collagen fiber (colon, HE)
6. Elastic fiber (aorta, orcein)
7. Reticular fiber (liver, AgNO3 impregnation)
Lecture: Blood vessels
Bone marrow and blood formation
Practicum and seminar: Adipose tissue. Cartilage. Bone.
Demonstration: 1. Adipocytes (suprarenal gland, HE)
2. Hyaline cartilage (trachea, HE)
3. Elastic cartilage (epiglottis, orcein)
4. Fibrous cartilage, and bone (knee joint, HE)
5. Bone, cross-section (Schmorl’s stain)
Lecture: Histology of lymphatic organs I.
Histology of lymphatic organs II.
Practicum and seminar: Bone formation. Muscle tissue.
1. Enchondral ossification epiphyseal growth plate (knee joint, HE)
2. Skeletal muscle (HE)
Demonstration: 3. Skeletal muscle (iron-haematoxylin)
4. Smooth muscle (small intestine, HE)
5. Cardiac muscle (PTAH)
Lecture: Gastrulation, formation of the mesoderm
Differentiation of the ectoderm and mesoderm
Differentiation of the entoderm, folding of the embryo
Practicum and seminar: Blood vessels. Blood. Bone marrow. Blood formation.
1. Elastic artery (orcein)
2. Muscular artery and vein (HE)
3. Arteriole, venule, capillary (colon, HE)
4. Blood smear (May-Grünwald-Giemsa)
5. Bone marrow (HE)
Lecture: Featal membranes. Placenta. The fetal period. Twins.
Osteology and arthrology – introduction.
Practicum and seminar: Histology of lymphatic organs.
1. Thymus (HE)
Demonstration: 2. Lymphatic follicle (colon, HE)
3. Lymph node (HE)
4. Spleen (HE)
5. Palatine tonsil (HE)
Lecture: The upper limb
The lower limb
The skull and the back.
Practicum and seminar: Upper and lower limbs.
The bones, joints, muscles, blood vessels and nerves of the upper limb. Sites of venous injections and measurement of blood pressure.
Bones, ligaments and membranes of the pelvis. The structure and function of the pelvic girdle.
The bones, joints, muscles, blood vessels and nerves of the lower limb. Sites of muscular injections. Femoral canal.
Lecture: Anatomy of the head and neck
Nasal and oral cavities.
The pharynx and the larynx
Practicum and seminar: The anatomy of the head, neck and back
Subdivisions of the skull. Calvaria and base of the skull. Sutures and fontanelles. The bony orbit, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Temporomandibular, atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial joints.
Overview of the anatomy of the head and neck. Sensory and motor innervation of the face. Muscles of facial expression. The parotid gland. Common carotid artery and its branches. Internal and external jugular veins. Cervical plexus. Define the location of the hyoid bone, thyroid gland and thyroid cartilage. Site of conicotomy. Surface projection of the apex of the lung. The larynx and the pharynx.
The structure of the vertebral column.
Lecture: The heart I.
The heart II.
The trachea, lungs and pleura.
Practicum and seminar: The anatomy of the heart and the respiratory system.
The structure of the wall of the thorax, Lymphatic drainage of the mammary gland.
The lungs, pleura and pleural recesses. The root of the lung.
The heart. The pericardium and its sinuses.
The mediastinum and its major parts.
Lecture: Histology of the lung
Development of the lung and heart
Circulatory system. The vascular system of the embryo.
Practicum and seminar: The histology of the respiratory system
1. Larynx (HE)
2. Trachea (HE)
3. Lung (HE)
Demonstration: 4. Lung injected with indian ink (HE)
Lecture: Development and general organization of the alimentary system
The oesophagus. The stomach
Small and large intestines
Practicum and seminar: The anatomy of the alimentary system
The structure and layers of the abdominal wall.
The stomach, the dupdenum, the liver, the pancreas and the spleen.
Demonstration of some parts of the small and large intestines.
The peritoneum. The abdominal aorta and its branches.
Lymphatic drainage of the abdominal cavity.
Lecture: The pancreas. The liver I.
The liver II. The system of the portal vein.
The peritoneum. The retroperitoneum
Gyakorlat: The histology of the alimentary system.
1. The stomach (HE)
2. Jejunum (HE)
3. Colon (HE)
Demonstration: 4. Vermiform appendix (HE)
5. Liver (pig, HE)
6. Pancreas (HE)
Lecture: The kidney
The urinary system
Male genital organs I.
Practicum seminar: The anatomy of the urogenital apparatus
Location and capsules of the kidney. The kidney in a transverse section.
Visceral relation of pelvic organs. Demonstration of male and female pelvis organs.
Demonstration of external genital organs.
Internal iliac artery. Sacral plexus.
Lecture: Male genital organs II.
Female genital organs I.
Female genital organs II.
Practicum and seminar: Histology of the kidney and genital organs
1. Kidney, transverse section (HE)
2. Testis and epididymis (HE)
3. Ovary (HE)
Demonstration: 4. Corpus luteum (HE)
5. Uterus, progesteron phase (HE)
Lecture: Development of the urogenital system
Neuroendocrine regulation. The hypothalamo-hypophysealis system.
The pineal, thyroid, parathyroid and suprarenal glands.
Practicum and seminar: Histology of the endocrine system
1. Pituitary gland (HE)
2. Thyroid gland (HE)
3. Parathyroid gland (HE)
4. Suprarenal gland (HE)
K.L. Moore and A.M.R. Agur: Essential Clinical Anatomy
2nd ed., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2002, ISBN 0-7817-2830-4
D.H. Cormack: Essential Histology
2nd ed., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2001, ISBN 0-7817-1668-3
T.W. Sadler: Langman's Medical Embryology
11th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Co., 2006, ISBN 978-7817-9069-7
Sobotta: Atlas of Human Anatomy 1-2
14th ed., Urban& Schwarzenberg, Munich, ISBN: 978-0-443-10349-0
Anatomy, Histology and Embryology
Concerning attendance, the rules written in the Regulations Governing Admission, Education and Examinations of the University are valid. The presence in practices, seminars and lectures will be recorded. The head of the department may refuse to sign the Lecture Book if a student is absent more than twice from practices and seminars in one semester even if he/she has an acceptable reason.
The program of the lectures, seminars and practices is written in the University Calendar.
Rules of examinations:
Two midterm examinations will be held, one on the 7th week and on the 15th week. The exams cover the topics of lectures, seminars and practices of the second semester.
Evaluation of the midterm examinations
The midterm exams will be evaluated with points and the points of the two examinations will be added. On the second test only those students are allowed to attend who reached at least 20% on the first test.
Students with scores higher than 60% earn an exemption from the final examination with a mark that will be calculated on the basis of the overall performance on the two midterm examinations.
The end-semester exam is a written exam that covers the topics of lectures, seminars and practices of the semester. The exam will be evaluated with points that will be converted into final mark in the following way:
0 – 59 % fail (1)
60 – 69 % pass (2)
70 – 79 % satisfactory (3)
80 – 89 % good (4)
90 – 100 % excellent (5)
Registration for the exam and postponement: Through the NEPTUN system